The primary aim of this volume is to make the chemist familiar with the numerous stationary phases and column types, with their advantages and disadvantages, to help in the selection of the most suitable phase for the type of analytes under study. The book also provides detailed information on the chemical structure, physico-chemical behaviour, experimental applicability, physical data of liquid and solid stationary phases and solid supports. Such data were previously scattered throughout the literature. To understand the processes occurring in the separation column and to offer a manual both to the beginner and to the experienced chromatographer, one chapter is devoted to the basic theoretical aspects. Further, as the effectiveness of the stationary phase can only be considered in relation to the column type, a chapter on different column types and the arrangement of the stationary phase within the column is included. The secondary aim of this book is to stimulate the development of new and improved standardized stationary phases and columns, in order to improve the reproducibility of separations, as well as the range of applications.
Berry phase has been widely used in condensed matter physics in the past two decades. This volume is a timely collection of essential papers in this important field, which is highlighted by 2016 Nobel Prize in physics and recent exciting developments in topological matters. Each chapter has an introduction, which helps readers to understand the reprints that follow.
The minimalist notion of a phase has often been investigated with a view to the interfaces. ‘Phases’ provides a strictly syntax-internal perspective. If phases are fundamental, they should provide the grounds for a unifying treatment of different syntactic phenomena. Concentrating on displacement, the book argues that this expectation is borne out: there is an empirical clustering of properties, whereby the phrases that undergo pied-piping are also the phrases that host intermediate traces of cyclic movement. The same phrases also host partial and secondary movement. Finally, the immediate complements within these phrases never strand the embedding heads. The phrases that show this behaviour are the phases (CP, vP, DP, and PP). To account for the cluster of properties, phases are claimed to have two special properties: their complement is inaccessible to operations outside, the Phase Impenetrability Condition; their heads may be endowed with unvalued features that are neither connected to the categorical status of the phase nor interpreted on it. It is shown how the cluster of empirical properties flows naturally from these two assumptions, supporting the idea that phases are indeed a fundamental construct in syntax.
This volume explores and develops the framework of phases (so-called Phase Theory), first introduced in Chomsky (2000). The antecedents of such framework go back to the well-known notion of “cycle”, which concerns broader notions, such as compositionality, locality, and economy conditions. Within generative grammar, this idea of the cycle took a concrete form in the fifties, with Chomsky, Halle, and Lukoff’s (1955) pioneering work on stress, later on extended in Chomsky & Halle (1968), Halle & Vergnaud (1987), and further applied to morpho-phonology (Mascaró 1976 and Kiparski 1982), semantics (Jackendoff 1969), and syntax (Chomsky 1965, 1973). In recent years, several attempts have tried to refine and reformulate the cycle (Freidin 1999, Lasnik 2006, Uriagereka 2011). Such was the goal behind explorations on bounding nodes (Chomsky 1973) and barriers (Chomsky 1986), for which there is substantial empirical evidence showing how computation proceeds in a step-by-step fashion. Much work within minimalism has been devoted to investigate the nature of phases and their relevance for other areas of linguistic inquiry. Although it has been argued that phases have natural correlates at the interfaces, it is still unclear what the defining properties of these domains are, whether they can help us understand language acquisition, language variation, or language evolution. This book aims at addressing these questions, sharpening our understanding about phases and the nature of the Faculty of Language. Ángel J. Gallego (ed.), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona 1. Cedric Boeckx, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats / Universitat de Barcelona 2. Zeljko Bošković, University of Connecticut 3. Noam Chomsky, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4. Samuel D. Epstein, University of Michigan 5. Wolfram Hinzen, Durham University 6. Hisatsugu Kitahara, Keio University 7. Julie Anne Legate, University of Pennsylvania 8. Hiroki Narita, Waseda Institute for Advanced Study 9. Miki Obata, Mie University 10. Marc D. Richards, University of Frankfurt 11. Ian G. Roberts, University of Cambridge 12. Bridget Samuels, University of Southern California 13. Yosuke Sato, National University of Singapore 14. T. Daniel Seely, Eastern Michigan University 15. Juan Uriagereka, University of Maryland
‘The human biography is a symphony which each individual personally composes'. While each person's path in life is a unique and individual 'work of art', the human being meets certain milestones - from the period of adolescence to old age - which are universal in nature. Regardless of background, critical outer and inner stages must be passed through. A bestseller since it was first published, Phases describes each period of life-adolescence, the twenties, thirties, forties etc-and looks at the inner qualities and challenges that arise at each stage. The author argues that the various biological and psychological explanations of the human being are incomplete. If the inner self, the ego, of each individual is recognized and acknowledged, then the peculiarities of one's particular life-path and its challenges take on new meaning. BERNARD LIEVEGOED - psychiatrist, educator and anthroposophist - brought half a century of clinical practice, studious observation and personal insight into the writing of this book. His overview of the course of human life and professional career, of male-female relationships, and the sometimes misleading picture of the human being presented by the various psychological schools of thought, has made this book essential reading for all those interested in attaining an insight into the mystery of life.
This book investigates the concept of phase, aiming at a structural definition of the three domains that are assumed as the syntactic loci for interface interpretation, namely vP, CP and DP. In particular, three basic issues are addressed, that represent major questions of syntactic research within the Minimalist Program in the last decade. A) How is the set of minimally necessary syntactic operations to be characterised (including questions about the exact nature of copy and merge, the status of remnant movement, the role of head movement in the grammar), B) How is the set of minimally necessary functional heads to be characterised that determine the built-up and the interpretation of syntactic objects and C) How do these syntactic operations and objects interact with principles and requirements that are thought to hold at the two interfaces. The concept of phase has also implications for the research on the functional make-up of syntactic objects, implying that functional projections not only apply in a (universally given) hierarchy but split up in various phases pertaining to the head they are related to. This volume provides major contributions to this ongoing discussion, investigating these issues in a variety of languages (Berber, Dutch, English, German, Modern Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Norwegian and West Flemish) and combining the analysis of empirical data with the theoretical insights of the last years.
Current understanding of different phases as well as the phase transitions between them has only been achieved following recent theoretical advances on the effects of dimensionality in statistical physics. P S Pershan explains the connection between these two separate areas and gives some examples of problems where the understanding is still not complete. The most important example is the second order phase transition between the nematic and smectic-A phase. Others include the relation between the several hexatic phases that have been observed and the first order restacking transitions between phases that were all previously identified as smectic-B, but which should more properly be identified as crystalline-B. Some relatively recent experimental developments on the discotic phase, liquid crystal surfaces and lyotropic phases are also included. The book includes 41 major reprints of some of the recent seminal work on the structure of liquid crystals. They are introduced by a brief review of the symmetries and other properties of liquid crystalline phases. In addition, there is a discussion of the differences between true liquid crystalline phases and others that were described as liquid crystalline in the early literature, but which have since been shown to be true three-dimensional crystals. The progression from the isotropic fluid, through the nematic, smectic, and various crystalline phases can be understood in terms of a systematic decrease in symmetry, together with an accompanying variation in structure is explained. A guide to the selected reprints and a sort of ?Rosetta Stone? for these various phases is provided. The goal of this book is to explain the systematics of this progression to students and others that are new to this field, as well as to provide a useful handbook for people already working in the field.
Why is Western society in a state of moral crisis despite material affluence? By looking at the historical evolution of society, Peeters helps to explain this contradiction and predicts that a new form of society will emerge during the first decades of the 21st century capable of solving today's problems.
Category: Actif (Comptabilité) - Prix - Modèles économétriques
Boom and bust phases in asset prices have become a pervasive feature of macroeconomic developments in many advanced economies. This paper studies fiscal policy during boom-bust phases in asset prices and draws several conclusions. First, expansions and contractions in economic activity during such boom-bust phases tend to be highly persistent, cyclical turning points are harder to forecast, and the margins of error for output gap estimates can be large. Second, conventional estimates of revenue elasticities seem not to allow an accurate assessment of the fiscal stance and of the strength of underlying fiscal positions during boom-bust phases. And third, boom-bust phases tend to exacerbate already existing procyclical policy biases, as well as political-economy biases, toward higher spending and public debt ratios.